Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, is an organic compound is in the range of peer methylic alcohol, is a volatile liquid, flammable, colorless. Ethanol is one of the common ingredients of alcohol beverages that contain alcohol.
Its chemical formula is C2H5OH, or CH3-CH2-OH, written summary is C2H6O.

Depending on the fermentation of raw materials (from sugar cane or cassava), we have:
1 absolute ethanol (absolute alcohol): complete removal of water content in ethanol with luong99.60
Food Con 2
3 Con industrial alcohol production from cassava while not completely remove impurities for industrial use
    Industrial alcohol 95 (95% ethanol + 5% methanol)
    Industrial alcohol 95 (95% ethanol + 5% IPA)
4.Cong Bio-fuel use
* Industrial alcohol (ethanol and 1 toxic substances) are not used in beverage will cause poisoning.

  2. Properties
Ethanol is a colorless, volatile, characteristic odor. When burning blue flame with no smoke pearl to form carbon dioxide and water.
The properties of ethanol mainly due to the activity of the hydroxyl group (OH) and Carbon by short circuit. Since there are OH groups should be able to participate in the hydrogen molecule linked, making it less viscous and evaporation compared to the organic compound with the molecular weight.

Ethanol is a solvent flexible, can be dissolved in water with different organic compounds: acetic acid, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethylene glycol, glycerol, nitromethane, pyridine, and toluene. Can mixtures with aliphatic hydrocarbons such as pentane and hexane such, and with chloride as trichloroethane and tetraloethylene fat.

With hydrogen bonds make pure ethanol can absorb moisture in the air. Polar hydroxyl group of ethanol soluble ionic compounds such as sodium and potassium especially hydroxide, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride ... .For ethanol molecules have a nonpolar structure should be dissolved non-polar substances including essential oils, many flavors, colors and ingredients in pharmaceutical
Ethanol is a single-function wine. It has a melting point in -117,30Cva boils at 78.50C. It can be mixed with water to any rate. Ethanol and water create azeotropic mixture, creating a constant boiling mixture, so the separation of ethanol water mixture is difficult.
The separation of water in ethanol to produce pure alcohol, absolute ethanol is not theco by simple distillation.

  3.Dieu regime
Ethanol is produced by both petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene technology, and biological methods, or by fermenting sugar with yeast grains

a.Hydrat ethylene
Ethanol is used as industrial raw materials and usually it is produced from petroleum raw materials, mainly via ethylene hydration method using acid catalysis, are presented in the following chemical reaction. For ethylene with water at 300 oC, pressure 70-80 atm with tungstic acid catalyst or acidphosphoric:
H2C = CH2 + H2O → CH3CH2OH
The catalyst is usually phosphoric acid, adsorbed in porous substances such as diatamit (soil containing diatoms) or charcoal; This catalyst was first Shell oil company used to produce ethanol at industrial level nam1947. The solid catalyst, mainly various metal oxides, also mentioned in the chemical literature.
In the old technology, was first conducted at the level of industry in 1930 by Union Carbide, but now almost discarded the first ethylene was hydrated indirectly by reacting it with bold sulfric acid characteristics to produce ethyl sulfate, this material is then hydrolyzed to produce renewable ethanol and sulfuric acid:

H2C = CH2 + H2SO4 → CH3CH2OSO3H
Ethanol for industrial use is generally inconsistent with the purpose of making drinks for humans ("denatured") because it contains a small amount of the substance may be toxic (such as methanol) or discomfort (denatonium- such C21H29N2O • C7H5O2-is a very bitter substance, anesthesia). Ethanol denatured with UN number is UN 1987 and toxic denatured ethanol with the UN number 1986.
b. fermentation
Ethanol for use in alcoholic beverages, as well as the majority of ethanol used as fuel, is produced by fermentation: when a certain species of yeast metabolize sugar in the absence of oxygen (called anaerobic ), they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide CO2. General chemical reaction can be written as follows:

C6H12O6 → 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2
The process of culturing yeast under conditions to produce alcohol is called aging. The alcohol can grow in the presence of about 20% alcohol, but the alcohol concentration in the final product can be increased by distillation.
To produce ethanol from starchy materials such as cereal grains, the starch must first be converted to sugar. During the fermentation, it is traditionally produced by the germination of malt or brewed. During germination, seeds can produce functional enzymes break down starch to produce sugar. To produce fuel ethanol, the hydrolysis of starch into glucose this is done more quickly by seed treatment with dilute sulfuric acid, fungal enzyme amylas, or a combination of both methods.

Regarding potential to ferment glucose into ethanol can be obtained from cenluloza.Viec implemented this technology can help transform one type of waste and agricultural residues contain cellulose, such as corncobs, straw or sawdust into renewable energy sources sinh.Cho Until recently, the cost of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose cellulas can be very high. Canadian firm Iogen has put into operation a plant producing cellulose ethanol on first base in 2004.

Cellulose hydrolysis reaction comprising the steps of:
Step 1, hydrolysis of cellulose enzyme amylase effects associated thanhmantoza below.
(C6H10O5) n> C12H22O11
Step 2, maltose hydrolysis into glucose or fructose under the effect of menmantaza.
C12H22O11 -> C6H12O6
Step 3, alcohol fermentation reaction is catalyzed enamel Zima.
C6H12O6 -> 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2
With oil prices similar to prices of the year 1990, the ethylene hydration technology is dramatically economy than fermentation technology to produce pure ethanol. The rise of oil prices in recent times, along with instability in the prices of agricultural products each year has made forecasting production costs relative of fermentation technology and petrochemical technology is very difficult.
c.Lam pure
For a mixture of ethanol and water, boiling mixture (azeotrope) maximum concentration of 96% ethanol and 4% water. For this reason, fractional distillation of ethanol-water mixture (containing less than 96% ethanol) can not generate more than 96% pure ethanol. Therefore, 95% ethanol in water is the most common solvent.

  4.Ung use:
a.Nhien whether or gasoline additives:
- Ethanol can be used as fuel (usually mixed with petrol) and used in other industrial processes
- Honhop gasoline (90%) and ethanol (10% often obtained by fermenting agricultural products) or gasoline (97%) and methanol or alcohol.
- Ethanol is used in antifreeze and related products because of its low freezing point.
b.Do alcohol:
- Ethanol is the main ingredient of alcoholic beverages, as drinking ethanol as 1 metabolic energy supply nutrients
c. Ingredients:
Ethanol is an important component of the industry and widely used as an organic compounds, including ethyl halides, ethyl esters, diethyl ether, acetic acid, ethylamine, ...
d. Pesticides:
Ethanol is used in medical and anti-bacterial
Solution containing 70% ethanol is used mainly as a disinfectant. It is effective against most bacteria and fungi as well as viruses, ... but not as effective against bacterial spores
e. Solvent: There soluble solvents and other countries. Ethanol in paints, tinctures, and personal care products such as perfumes and deodorants ...
In terms of medicine, sleeping pills ethanol, although it is less toxic than the other alcohols, death usually occurs if the blood alcohol concentration in excess of about 5%.
Can vision loss, loss of consciousness will occur at lower concentrations.

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